Indian shipping industry has over the years played
a crucial role in the transport sector of India's
economy.Approximately 95% of the country's trade
by volume and 70% by value is moved through maritime
transport. India is among the 20 leading merchant
fleets all over the world. The country has 12
major ports and 200 minor ports. The twelve major
ports are Kolkata (including dock complex at Haldia),
Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin
on the east coast and Cochin, New Mangalore, Mormugao,
Jawaharlal Nehru at Nhava, Mumbai and Kandla on
the west coast.
Ports provide an interface between the ocean
transport and land-based transport. In the initial
years, the traffic was being handled mostly at
major ports. However, over the years, non-major
ports have also witnessed growth in traffic.
Performance of Major Ports
Traffic growth: The major ports handled
a total traffic of 530.39 million tonnes during
2008-09,registering a growth of 2.1%.About 80
% of the total volume of traffic handled was in
the form of dry and liquid bulk, with the residual
consisting of general cargo, including containerized
cargo. There was an impressive growth of 11.05
% per annum in container traffic during the five
years ending 2008-09.
Capacity addition: The annual aggregate
cargo-handling capacity of major ports increased
from 532.07 million tonnes per annum in 2007-08
to 574.77 million tonnes per annum in 2008-09.
The average turnaround time decreased from 3.93
days to 3.87 days.
Performance: The average output per ship
berth-day improved from 10,071 tonnes in 2007-08
to 10,473 tonnes in 2008-09. The pre-berthing
waiting time at major ports on port account decreased
from 11.40 hours in 2007-08 to 9.55 hours in 2008-09.
Port-wise handling capacity as well as Traffic
Handled during the year 2008-09 is given below:
Source:Ministry of Shipping,Government
National Maritime Development
National Maritime Development
Programme has been formulated keeping in view
the future traffic projections. The objective
of the Programme is to bring up the levels of
performance in the maritime sector to international
benchmarks. Out of the total 387 schemes/ projects
in major ports, shipping and IWT sector which
have been identified under the Programme. The
total investment envisaged in the programme is
Rs.100,339 crores out of which Rs.55,804 crores
is for Major Ports and Rs.44,535 crores is for
Shipping and IWT sectors. In the Port sector,
a total of 276 projects have been identified under
the programme for implementation by 2011-12. Out
of these about Rs.34,505 crores is expected from
private sector, Rs.3,609 crores is expected to
be provided through budgetary support and Rs.13,772
crores is proposed to be financed through internal
resources of the Major Ports and the balance from
other sources. The objective is to upgrade and
modernize the Port infrastructure in India and
benchmark its performance against global standards.
In the Shipping sector, a total of 111 projects
involving total investment of Rs.44,535 crores
over a period of 20 years have been identified
for inclusion in the Programme. Out of this, Rs.13,775
crores are expected to be through budgetary support,Rs.17,460
crores through internal and extra budgetary resources
and Rs.13,300 crores through private investment.
The activities covered under the Programme include
tonnage acquisition, maritime training, coastal
shipping, aids to navigation, shipbuilding and
building up of IWT infrastructure.
Mode Concession Agreement (MCA)
The Government has finalized a Model Concession
Agreement (MCA) to ensure uniformity in the contractual
agreements to be entered by the major ports with
the selected bidders for the BOT projects to be
developed through PPP mode. It will also enable
the prospective bidders to have prior knowledge
of the contractual obligations of both parties
and,therefore, ensure transparency.
New Tariff Guideline
For fixing tariffs, the Department of Shipping
has formulated new tariff guidelines, Tariff Authority
for Major Ports (TAMP) an autonomous body under
the Department of Shipping, shall now follow a
normative cost based approach for fixing tariffs.
These tariffs will act as a ceiling and will be
indexed to inflation and the private operators
are free to charge below these ceilings.
Rail Road Connectivity of Major Ports
The committee on infrastructure (CoI) headed
by the Prime Minister has set up a committee of
secretaries (CoS) under the Chairmanship of Member
Secretary (Planning Commission) to review the
rail road connectivity of major ports which recommended
that each major port should preferably have a
minimum of a four-lane road and double line rail
connectivity and these should be established within
a fixed time frame.
Ennore Port Ltd. (EPL)
Ennore Port Ltd. (EPL) has also signed concession
agreement with selected bidders for development
of an eight million tonnes per annum (MTPA) iron
ore terminal on BOT basis.The Government has approved
the project for undertaking capital dredging phase-I
by EPL at an expenditure of US $ 18.41 million.
EPL will bear the entire expenditure for this
capital dredging project for providing a depth
of (-) 15 metre below CD for the new marine liquid,
iron ore and coal terminals being developed on
BOT basis. The physical progress upto the month
of November 2008 was 80 per cent.
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment upto 100 per cent under
the automatic route is permitted for construction
and maintenance of ports and harbours.