In India all the states have achieved tremendous growth in the Health service and Health education for the last 60 years. During these years Government has given importance to all systems of Medicines like Modern medicine, Ayurveda, Homeo, Sidha etc empowered the country to achieve the target of Health for all. Some important Health policies like the formation of Indian Medical council, Nursing council, Pharmacy council, Dental council etc enhanced the growth rate and led the Health goal to the international standard.
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched by the Honorable Prime Minister on 12 th April 2005, to provide accessible, affordable, and accountable quality health services to the poorest households in the remotest rural regions. Under the NRHM, the difficult areas with unsatisfactory health indicators were classified as special focus states to ensure greatest attention when needed. The thrust of the Mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralized health delivery system with inter sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health like water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality. Institutional integration within the fragmented health sector was expected to provide a focus on outcomes, measured against Indian Public Health Standards for all health facilities. From narrowly defined schemes, the NRHM is shifting the focus to a functional health system at all levels, from the village to the district.
Progress under NRHM
Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs):
- Selection of 833,243 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) have been done in the entire country.
- 5.70 lakhs ASHAs have been provide with drug kit.
- 1.46 lakhs Sub-centres in the country are provided with untied funds of US$
223.3 each. 482,219 Sub-centres & Village Health Sanitation Committee
(VHSC) have operational joint accounts of
Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANMs) and Pradhans for utilization of annual untied funds. 50,728 Sub-centres are functional with second ANM.
- Out of 4510 Community Health Centres (CHCs), 2921 CHCs have been selected for upgradation to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) and facility survey has been completed in 2864 CHCs.
- 29,904 Rogi Kalyan Samitis have been registered at different level of facilities.
- 9856 Doctors and Specialist, 53552 ANMs, 26734 staff Nurses, 18272 Paramedics have been appointed on contract by states to fill in critical gaps.
- Intense monitoring of Polio Progress – services of ASHA useful.
- Neonatal Tetanus declared eliminated from 7 states in the country.
- Full immunization coverage evaluated at 43.5% at the national level
- Accelerated Immunization Programme taken up for Empowered Action Group states and northeastern states.
Social Health Activists (ASHAs)
One of the key strategies under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is having a community health worker i.e. ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) for every village with a population of 1000. Detailed guidelines have been issued by the Government of India in matter of selection and training of ASHA. The States have been given the flexibility to relax the population norms as well as the educational qualifications on a case to case basis, depending on the local conditions as far as her recruitment is concerned.