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INDUSTRY & SERVICES

TEXTILES

The Indian Textiles Industry has an overwhelming presence in the economic life of the country. Apart from providing one of the basic necessities of life, the textiles industry also plays a pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation, and the export earnings of the country.

During 2009-10,Indian textiles industry is pegged at US$ 55 billion, 64 per cent of which services domestic demand. The textiles industry accounts for 14 per cent of industrial production; employs 35 million people and accounts for nearly 12 per cent share of the country's total exports basket.

The Textiles sector is the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Thus, the growth and all round development of this industry has a direct bearing on the improvement of the economy of the nation.

The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, with the hand-spun and hand-woven sector at one end of the spectrum, and the capital intensive, sophisticated mill sector at the other. The decentralized powerlooms/ hosiery and knitting sectors form the largest section of the TextilesSector. The close linkage of the Industry to agriculture and the ancient culture, and traditions of the country make the Indian textiles sector unique in comparison with the textiles industry of other countries. This also provides the industry with the capacity to produce a variety of products suitable to the different market segments, both within and outside the country.

The major sub-sectors that comprise the textiles sector include the organized Cotton/ Man-Made Fibre Textiles Mill Industry, the Man-made Fibre/ Filament Yarn Industry, the Wool and Woollen Textiles Industry, the Sericulture and Silk Textiles Industry, Handlooms, Handicrafts, the Jute and Jute Textiles Industry, and Textiles Exports.

Production of Cloth

All Sectors

Figures in million sq meters

Item

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2009-10 (April-Jan)

2010-11 (April-Jan)

Cotton

27105

26898

28790

23952

25648

Blended

6888

6766

7769

6456

6747

100 per cent Non Cotton

21183

20534

22438

19016

18379

Total

55276

54198

58996

49424

50774

Source: texmin.nic.in

production of Textiles items

Items
Unit

2009-10

2010-11 (Prov.)

(April- June)

       

2011-12

2010-11

Raw Cotton (cotton year)

Mn.Kg.

5015

5525*

--

--

Man made fibre

Mn.Kg.

1268

1281

308

309

spurn yarn

Mn.Kg.

4193

4649

1066

1129

Man made filament yarn

Mn.Kg.

1522

1550

346

385

Fabrics (including Khadi,wool & silk)

Mn.Sq.mtr

60333

61811

13540

14943

Source: texmin.nic.in

Exports

India's Textiles and Clothing Industry is one of the mainstays of the national economy. It is also one of the largest contributing sectors of India's exports worldwide. At current prices the Indian textiles industry is pegged at US$ 55 billion, 64 per cent of which services domestic demand. It accounts for nearly 12 per cent share of the country's total exports basket.

India's Textile Exports

Value in US$ Mn.
Qty. in Mn. Kg.

April – October
Items
2009-2010
2009-2010
2010-2011
 
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
Fibre

1868

2248.64 

571

555.97 

570

33042

Yarn

1105

2447.49 

547

1192.87

843

110802

Fabrics

NA

3363.95 

NA

1991.63

NA

102411

Readymade Garments

NA

9714.67 

NA

5426.83 

NA

267372

Madeups

NA

2228.91 

NA

1231.55

NA

78475

Other Textile

NA

1220.74 

NA

637.48

NA

42803

Grand Total

2974

21224.59

1119

11036.35 

1413

12133.89 

Source: Monthly Statistics of the Foreign Trade of India. DGCIS, Kolkata

Sector Wise Analysis

Cotton Sector

Cotton is one of the principal crops of the country and is the major raw material for the domestic textile industry. It provides sustenance to million of farmers as also the workers involved in cotton industry, right from processing to trading of cotton. The Indian Textile industry consumes a diverse range of cotton and yarn, but is predominantly cotton based. The ratio of the use of cotton to man-made fibres and filament yarns by the domestic industry is about 56:94.The textile industry plays a pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation and the export earnings of the country. It contributes about 14 per cent to the industrial production, 4 per cent to the GDP and 14.42 per cent to the country's export earnings. The textile sector is the second largest provider of employment after agriculture.

Indian Cotton Varities

India is the only country to grow all four species of cultivated cotton Gossypium arboreum and herbaceum (Asian cotton), G.barbadense (Egyptian cotton) and G.hirsutum (American Upland cotton). Gossypium hirsutum represents 90 per cent of the hybrid cotton production in India and all the current Bt cotton hybrids are G.hirsutuim. India produces large number of cotton varieties and hybrids. Though the number of varieties in cultivation exceeds seventy-five, 98 per cent of the production is contributed by about 25 varieties only.

Cotton production and productivity

Cotton is produced in India in three zones viz., Northern zone comprising the States of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, Central zone comprising the States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and Southern zone comprising the States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Besides these nine States, cotton cultivation has gained momentum in the eastern State of Orissa.

With increased acreage and advent of Bt cultivation, the country has achieved cotton production of 5.0 million tons in cotton season 2009-10 as against 4.93 million tons in the previous year. The country has once again retained the position as the second largest cotton producing country in the world, after China.

Exports

Exports of cotton from the country are under Open General License (OGL) since July 2001. The international cotton prices in cotton season 2009-10 has been higher than domestic prices and there was good demand for Indian cotton, especially from neighboring countries like China, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

The Government of India has decided to allow the exports of cotton under OGL without duty effect from 1 st October, 2010 for the cotton season 2010-11.

Year
Qty. (in lakh bales of 170 kgs each)
Value (in US$ million)
2007-08
88.5
1816.4
2008-09
35.00
830.5
2009-10
83.00
2071.0

Source: Annual Report 2010-11,Ministry of Textiles,Government of India

Man-Made Staple Fibre and Filament Yarn

Type
No.of Units
Installed Capacity
as on 30.12.2010
Production (million Kg)
 
 
 

2008-09

2009-10

2009-10
(April-Jan)

2010-11
(April-Jan)

Staple Fibre
Viscose
6
418.68
279.90
232.75
220.86
301.00
Polyester
15
1182.73
879.61
750.11
653.54
870.54
Acrylic
8
153.00
81.23
79.51
72.08
95.22
Polypropylene
3
8.70
3.43
3.43
2.37
3.24
Total
32
1763.11
1244.17
1065.80
948.85
1270.00
Flament Yarn
Viscose
7
80.10
51.07
42.42
32.02
42.86
Nylon#
11
32.00
27.62
28.07
22.40
29.66
Polyester##
43
2013.49
1420.14
1332.09
1081.48
1436.46
Polypropylene#
13
17.63
10.51
15.08
11.34
14.87
Total
74
2143.22
1509.34
1417.66
1147.24
1523.85

Source: Annual Report 2010-11,Ministry of Textiles,Government of India

Jute and Jute Textiles

The Jute industry occupies an important place in the national economy of India. It is one of the major industries in the eastern region, particularly in West Bengal. Jute, the golden fibre, meets all the standards for ‘safe' packaging in view of being a natural, renewable, biodegradable and eco-friendly product. It is estimated that the jute industry provides direct employment to 0.37 million workers in organized mills and in diversified units including tertiary sector and allied activities and supports the livelihood of around 4.0 million farm families.

In the world perspective, India is the major producer of both raw jute and jute products. The total are under jute production in 2009-10 was estimated to be 925.7 thousand hectares with a total production of 9819.9 thousand bales of 180 kg per bale.

Exports

The exports of Jute and Jute Products during current financial year 2010-11 is estimated at a value of US$ 336.9  million and the quantity exported is estimated at 239.0 thousand metric tons.

 

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